How do I check engine codes without a scanner?

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Determine Whether a Scan Tool Is Necessary

If your vehicle is a model year 1995 or older, you will be able to check OBD-1 diagnostic trouble codes without using a dedicated scan tool. 1996 and newer vehicles operate with OBD-2 and require the use of a scan tool.

Verify the Initialization Procedure

To access OBD-1 codes, the vehicle's computer must be set to a special mode that allows display of the stored engine codes. The process varies by vehicle make, and can be found in the car's service manual or online. The procedure may involve connecting a disconnected electrical connector, following a sequence of pumping the brakes, gas pedal or some other action before turning the ignition to the accessory position.

Read the Diagnostic Trouble Code

When the vehicle's computer is in diagnostic mode, the malfunction indicator light (MIL, or check-engine light) will flash a series of short and long pulses separated by pauses. Digits of the code are deciphered by counting the flashes of the light. The first digit will be composed of long pulses, the next digit with short pulses, and so on until a pause is encountered. Pauses signify the end of a code. The meaning of these codes varies by vehicle make.

Volkswagen OBD1 Codes

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Volkswagen vehicles 1988-1995 obd1 code retrieval

You can access your check engine light codes in Volkswagen vehicles for vehicles made from 1988 to 1994. It is done using 2 ways: one type using a rocker switch located at the bottom at your dash panel and a second type using a jumper connected to the diagnostic connector located in the console

When activating the codes using the fist type, press and hold down the rocker switch for 4-5 seconds and with ignition key on, engine off. Release the switch after the code starts flashing in the dash (see “check” light in the dash) and press and hold it again for 4-6 seconds and the rest of the codes should continue flashing.
Using the jumper wire, connect the black end of the jumper wire to the black diagnostic connector of the center console while the white end of the jumper wire connects to the white diagnostic connector of the center console. The jumper wire is available from the dealer and is called “wire cable 357 971 514E”. This jumper wire must be connected for 5 seconds and remove after the codes begin flashing.
For both systems, a code is flashed at 2.5 seconds each and comes as a four digit codes. As soon as you get codes 4444 or 0000, it means the end of the code and it can be stopped by turning the key off. After performing repairs and if you do not get code 4444, it means the problem is not fixed.
To clear the codes, wait until code 4444 is displayed and turn the ignition switch off. Connect the jumper wire to the diagnostic connectors again and turn the ignition switch on. Leave the jumper wire for 5 seconds and wait if code 4444 to appear again. When it does, the codes are erased and the ignition switch can be turned off and jumper wire remove.
Here are common obd1 Volkswagen codes 1988 to 1994:
Code 4444 No fault indicated
Code 2212 Throttle valve potentiometer fault
Code 2312 Engine coolant sensor fault
Code 2322 Intake air temperature sensor fault
Code 2342 Oxygen sensor fault
Code 2141 Knock sensor fault
Code 2341 Oxygen sensor control (vacuum or exhaust leak, wiring fault)
Code 2323 Air flow sensor fault
Code 4411 Fuel injector fault
Code 1111 Control unit
Code 0000 End of code transfer: 2.5 second flashes at 2.5 seconds interval

BMW OBD1 Codes

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BMW vehicles obd1 code retrieval

You can get the check engine light codes of BMW vehicles for models made before 1995 using the check engine light. All you need to are:
Turn ignition key to run with engine not running
Depress gas pedal 5 times in wide open throttle (WOT) position within 5 seconds
Read the flash codes in the dash using the code table below.
Flash Code Table:
Code 1211 MCU malfunction
Code 1215 Air mass flow sensor fault
Code 1221 Oxygen sensor
Code 1222 Oxygen sensor control
Code 1223 Engine coolant temperature
Code 1224 Air intake temperature
Code 1231 Battery voltage
Code 1232 Idle throttle valve switch
Code 1233 Full load throttle valve switch
Code 1251 and Code 1252 Injection valve
Code 1261 Fuel pump relay
Code 1262 Idle speed control valve
Code 1263 Fuel tank vent valve
Code 1264 Oxygen sensor heater relay
Code 1444 No failure
Getting the above BMW fault codes do not necessarily mean it is a serious or hard code. Sometimes it could be erased first and then re-tried again to make sure if the original code is permanent or not. A lot of the common BMW OBD1 fixes are based on doing the basic engine maintenance requirements. Sometimes, garages are using the most common fixes available on the vehicles repair database which are usually stored in garages or vehicle's manufacturer's files.

Jaguar OBD1 Codes

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JAGUAR vehicles obd1 code retrieval

For Jaguar vehicles with obd1 codes (made before 1995 or 1993), testing the check engine lights in your dash to get the code is simple. All you do is locate the Vehicle Condition Monitor (VCM) button in the dash panel sitting below the tachometer and speedometer. The procedure begins by turning the key off and waiting for 5 seconds then turning the ignition key to position 2 without starting the engine. When you press the VCM button, codes will start to display in your dash panel.
Clearing the codes can be done by turning the key off and removing the battery negative terminal for 30 seconds and reconnect.
Here are some popular obd1 Jaguar codes:
Code 12 Mass sensor fault
Code 13 Manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor fault
Code 14 Engine coolant temperature sensor fault
Code 16 Air temperature sensor fault
Code 17 Throttle positioner sensor fault
Code 18 and Code 19 Throttle potentiometer/Mass sensor airflow sensor fault
Code 22 and Code 44 Heated oxygen sensor/ Fuel pump relay fault
Code 23 Fuel control system fault
Code 24 Ignition amplifier circuit fault
Code 26 Air leak or vacuum leak causing lean condition
Code 29 Electronic control module fault
Code 33 and Code 34 Fuel injection circuit fault
Code 37 EGR solenoid valve fault
Code 39 EGR system fault
Code 46 and Code 48 Idle air control valve circuit fault
Code 68 Vehicle speed sensor fault
Code 69 Park/Neutral position switch circuit fault
Code 89 Evaporative canister purge control valve circuit fault

Subaru OBD1 Codes

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Subaru vehicles 1987-94 obd1 codes retrieval

Subaru code retrieval is done by accessing two things: diagnostic connectors located near the kick panel by the driver side and watching the codes being flashed by a lens light at the computer box located under the dash by the driver side.
Subaru OBD1 DecoderThere are 2 ways to get the codes: using the read memory mode which will give codes that have shown in the past but has not shown at present. This is done by connecting the read memory connector and disconnecting the test mode connector with ignition key on, engine off. To get the codes actively present, you need to access the D-check mode by disconnecting the read memory connector and connecting the test mode connector, also with ignition key on, engine off.
To clear the codes, both read memory and test mode connectors must be connected and with engine running. Make sure all codes showing at D-check mode is fixed or the codes will not clear.
Here are some popular Subaru obd1 codes 1987-94:
Code 11 Crank angle sensor fault
Code 12 Starter switch fault
Code 13 TDC sensor fault
Code 14 Injector no.1 fault
Code 15 Injector no.2 fault
Code 16 Injector no.3 fault
Code 21 Coolant temperature sensor fault
Code 23 Pressure sensor fault
Code 24 ISC solenoid valve fault
Code 26 Air temperature sensor fault
Code 32 Oxygen sensor fault
Code 33 Vehicle speed sensor fault
Code 35 Purge control solenoid fault
Code 36 Ignition circuit fault
Code 41 Air/fuel ratio control system fault
Code 42 Idle switch fault
Code 43 Throttle switch fault
Code 45 Atmospheric pressure sensor fault
Code 52 Clutch switch circuit fault
Code 62 Electric load signal fault
Code 63 Blower fan switch fault
Code 65 Vacuum pressure sensor fault

Suzuki OBD1 Codes

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Suzuki vehicles 1986-95 obd1 code retrieval

To get the check engine light codes of Suzuki vehicles is fairly easy. All you need is to access the fuse panel under the dash on the driver’s side. On the lower left corner of the fuse panel, there is a fuse holder or diagnostic connector that you have to install a fuse. Once you do that and after you turn the key on, the dash panel will start flashing the codes.
Suzuki OBD1 Decoder
To clear the codes, turn the key off and remove the fuse. Then disconnect the battery negative terminal for 30 seconds and reconnect. (On some models, the duration of disconnection is up to 60 seconds, check your manual or contact ATS).
To read the codes being flashed, use this as a guide: code 13 is one long flash followed by 3 short flashes. Each code is repeated 3 times before going to the next code after a pause. When you see the codes flashing in the dash panel, write it down and reset the codes. You can do this by disconnecting the battery negative terminal for 1-2 minutes and reconnect. Start and warmed up the engine and repeat self dianostic procedure shown above. If the fault codes show up again, then that is the one you have to fix.
Here are some popular Suzuki codes for 1986-95 vehicles:
Code 12 System normal
Code 13 Oxygen sensor fault
Code 14 Engine coolant temperature circuit fault, high voltage
Code 15 Engine coolant temperature circuit fault, low voltage
Code 21 Throttle position sensor (TPS) circuit fault, voltage high
Code 22 Throttle position sensor (TPS) circuit fault, voltage low
Code 23 Air temperature sensor circuit fault, voltage high
Code 24 Vehicle speed sensor circuit fault
Code 25 Air temperature sensor circuit fault, voltage low
Code 31 Pressure sensor circuit fault, voltage high
Code 32 Pressure sensor circuit fault, voltage low
Code 33 Mass air flow sensor circuit fault, voltage high
Code 34 Mass air flow sensor circuit fault, voltage low
Code 41 Ignition signal fault
Code 42 Crank angle sensor circuit fault
Code 44 Idle switch of TPS, open circuit
Code 45 Idle switch of TPS, shorted circuit
Code 51 EGR system circuit fault
Code 52 Injector fault
Code 53 Ground circuit fault
Code 54 Fifth gear switch circuit fault
Code 71 Test switch circuit

Isuzu OBD1 Codes

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Isuzu vehicles 1985-94 obd1 code retrieval

Isuzu OBD1 DecoderYou can get the check engine light codes yourself on 1985-94 Isuzu vehicles by using a jumper wire between terminal pins 1 and 3 or A and B in the diagnostic connector. This diagnostic connector can be located anywhere from the driver side kick panel, passenger kick panel and sometimes at the center console. When using A and B terminal pins, getting the codes is similar to GM vehicles. Once the jumper wire is connected, turn your key on and read the codes being flashed in the dash panel.
Reading the lights being flashed is simple, like code 12 is a long flash, a pause followed by 2 short flashes. Code 12 is also the first code to appear which verifies that the diagnostic system is working. If there are any codes that are present, it will be flashed in the same way with each codes being flashed 3 times before going to a next higher code.
Clearing the codes is done mostly by removing the battery negative terminal but removing the ecm (computer) fuse for 10 seconds is the best method. This way, you don’t need to re-program your radio or clock in case you use the battery connection.
Don't forget to remove the jumper wire with key off before clearing the codes.
Here are some popular obd1 codes for 1985-94 Isuzu vehicles:
Code 12 System normal
Code 13 Oxygen sensor fault
Code 14 Coolant temperature fault
Code 21 TPS signal fault
Code 23 MAT circuit fault
Code 24 Vehicle speed signal sensor fault
Code 32 EGR sensor fault
Code 23 MAP sensor fault
Code 42 Electronic spark timing fault
Code 43 Electronic spark control fault
Code 44 Oxygen sensor fault
Code 51 Prom error
Code 55 ECM fault

Mitsubishi OBD1 Codes

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Mitsubishi vehicles 1990-95 obd1 code retrieval

Getting the check engine light codes for Mitsubishi vehicles requires using an analog voltmeter (this voltmeter has needle to read the voltage). To read the code, shut engine off and connect the voltmeter leads to the diagnostic output connector located under the dash panel in the driver’s side by the kick panel.
The diagnostic output connector has 12 terminal pins but connect the positive lead of the voltmeter to the top right corner terminal called MPI diagnosis (pin 1) and the negative lead of the voltmeter to the lower left corner terminal called ground terminal (pin 12). Once connected, turn the key on without starting and watch the dash panel flash the codes. To read the codes, use this guide:
Code 12 is one long sweep of the needle followed by 2 short sweeps. If there are more codes, there is a 2 seconds pause between codes. Most models before 1988 use a single digit codes but after that, it is mostly a 2 digit codes. To clear the codes after removing the voltmeter, remove the battery negative terminal for 15 seconds.
Here are some common Mitsubishi vehicle codes for 1989-94 models:
Code 11 Oxygen sensor fault
Code 12 Air flow sensor fault
Code 13 Intake temperature sensor
Code 14 Throttle positioner sensor fault
Code 15 SC Motor position sensor fault
Code 21 Engine coolant temperature sensor
Code 22 Crank angle sensor fault
Code 23 No.1 cylinder TDC sensor fault
Code 24 Vehicle speed sensor
Code 25 Barometric pressure sensor
Code 31 Knock sensor fault
Code 32 Manifold pressure sensor
Code 36 Ignition timing adjustment signal
Code 39 Oxygen sensor fault
Code 41 Injector fault
Code 42 Fuel pump fault
Code 43 EGR fault
Code 44 Ignition coil on 3.0L engines (1 and 2 cylinders)
Code 52 Ignition coil on 3.0L engines (2 and 5 cylinders)
Code 53 Ignition coil on 3.0L engines (3 and 6 cylinders)
Code 55 AV valve position sensor
Code 59 Heated oxygen sensor
Code 61 Transaxle control unit cable for automatic trany
Code 62 Warm-up control valve position sensor

Lexus OBD1 Codes

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Lexus OBD1 Codes Retrieval For Pre-1996 Vehicles
Lexus OBD1 Decoder
Lexus is the top end vehicle made by Toyota Corporation that first came out in 1990s. Diagnosing the meaning of the Lexus check engine light codes is basically the same way like most Toyota vehicles. To get the codes yourself, turn the engine off and connect a jumper wire between terminals TE1 and E1 of the diagnostic terminal connector located in the engine compartment or under the left side of the dash. Turning the engine key on but not starting the engine, the check engine light lamp in your dash panel will start to flash the codes. The codes are usually shown in 2 digits numbers like code 24 is 2 flashes, a pause and 4 flashes. A pause of 2.5 seconds will follow the next code. When all codes are transmitted, the entire code will be flashed again after 4.5 seconds. This process of getting Lexus OBD1 codes is the called the normal or regular test mode.

Lexus OBD Codes Reset
Resetting the codes is simple which is done by removing the fuse of the terminal EFI from junction box 2 for 10 seconds. Make sure to remove the jumper wire and switch the engine key off before clearing the codes.
Here are some popular Lexus vehicles 1990-1995 codes
Code 12 and Code 13 Rpm signal circuit fault
Code 14 Igniter signal circuit fault
Code 16 ECT control signal fault
Code 21 and Code 28 Main oxygen sensor fault (for ES300; SC300 & GS300 models)
Code 22 Coolant temperature circuit fault
Code 24 Intake temperature sensor circuit fault
Code 25 and Code 26 Air fuel ratio fault (for ES300 & SC300 models)
Code 27 Sub-oxygen sensor circuit fault (for ES300 CA & GS300 models)
Code 31 Low airflow meter voltage (for ES300 and GS300 models)
Code 32 High airflow meter voltage (for ES300 model)
Code 35 Barometric pressure sensor circuit fault (for GS300 & SC300 models)
Code 41 and Code 47 Throttle position sensor circuit fault
Code 42 Vehicle speed sensor circuit fault
Code 43 Starter signal
Code 51 Switch condition signal fault (for ES300; GS300 & SC300 models)
Code 52 Code 52 and Code 55 Knock sensor circuit fault
Code 71 EGR system circuit fault (for ES300; GS300 & SC300 models)
Code 78 Fuel pump control circuit fault (for GS300 & SC300 models)
Fixing Lexus OBD1 Codes
After getting your Lexus OBD1 codes, reset it first to confirm if you have a temporary or permanent hard codes. Temporary codes are usually erased whereas permanent hard codes need to be fixed before they can be erased. To erase, simply disconnect the battery negative terminal for 1-2 minutes and reconnect. Re-start engine until it is warmed up and get the code again. If you get the same code after the 2nd scanning, then that is called a permanent or hard failure code.
Hard Failures Code
Permanent or hard code is characterized when your check engine light in the dash remains on or it could flash repeatedly during engine operation. If it is caused by a sensor failure, the engine control module (ecm) will substitute another value to make the vehicle continue to run. At this condition called LIMP mode, the engine runs temporarily so it can be taken to a garage for repairs.
Intermittent Failures Code
This temporary code can cause the check engine light to flicker until the problem goes away. This condition occurs when if the code is not recorded in the ECM memory if it fails to appear in a certain time frame. This is caused by borderline defective sensor or poor wiring connections. Sometimes, intermittent codes will not show up during a regular warm up period but could sometime takes a day or two of driving before the code shows up. This is true if the defective component is borderline, meaning it could work 50-50 times during it's operation. Please take precaution when resetting the codes by disconnecting the battery.
Test Modes
This is the test used during road test if the regular diagnosis when the vehicle is parked will not work. To perform the test, use the same connection used in the regular test with the jumper wire connected making sure the jumper wire is hooked up when ignition key is off. Before road test, record the obd1 codes shown in the dash before doing the road test to simulate the vehicle problem. Once completed, record the fault codes shown in the dash. Take note that this TEST mode is more sensitive to intermittent codes because it also covers more circuits like starter signals, camshaft sensors, tps, AC and even neutral switch signals.
Lexus No Starts
When fixing Lexus no starts, you can begin by checking the starting system components like battery and it's connection; starter assembly and it's wiring and finally all the switches and relays associated with it. Getting the Lexus OBD1 codes helps because it narrows down the defective circuit instead of doing all the physical checks which is time consuming. In the end, fixing Lexus no starts will need both the practical way which needs individual component testing and electronic monitoring using OBD1 code detection. Shown below are two methods of fixing Lexus no starts by having the Lexus OBD1 codes and without.
1995 Lexus Es300 No Start with P0340 Code
A shop mechanic replaced the timing belt of the engine including front engine seals,and valve cover gaskets. Upon completion, the car was road tested and ran fine intially. A few minutes later the car quit and would hardly start. Later, it would only idle but died down completely after the throttle was opened up. Hooking up the scanner showed code P0340 camshaft sensor fault code (camshaft open short circuit) stored. When the code was reset, it just came back. The timing belt was replaced and including the camshaft sensor but it did not make any difference. It only make the engine idle rough ran but keeps cutting out with the same code.
CEL Advisor:
Most of this P0340 code can be fixed using dealer only (OEM) parts and if you happened to use aftermarket parts, replaced them. Next, make sure to align the timing belt properly during timing belt installation. Before installing the new cam sensor, look at the teeth of the camshaft pick up reluctor behind the engine gear cranshaft. This engine model is prone to breakage because the reluctor teeth becomes brittle when old and break off when disturbed. Double check this if possible and make sure all the readings to the camshaft sensor wirings are ok. If you can, you can compare camshaft readings to the ecm input terminals to verify if any of the camshaft wires are broken.
Final Fix
The engine fix was due to a couple of broken teeth off the relucter plate. The PCM could not read the TDC off the crankshaft with the broken teeth. This caused the camshatf sensor to be out of time with the crankshaft sensor causing it to set P0340 fault code. every time the engine would try to start.
1993 Lexus Es300 3.0L No Start No Code
This car had a transmission failure and it was replaced with a rebuilt one. All wirings were put back properly and transmission fluid changed including complete engine fluids replacements. After this, engine won't start. There was no spark or injector pulse. Checked cam and crank sensor wirings and reading looked OK with the voltmeter. There was no codes displayed in the dash when manually scanning. The ecm was finally replaced but it did not help.
Check Engine Light Advisor
Most transmission replacement requires that all wirings should be marked before removal so it can be put back during installation of the new transmission. If OK, go over the wiring diagram and check all ground and power supplies. Also check the presence of the computer (ecm) 5 volt refence in the main ecm terminals when the ignition is turn on. Do this also on the 5v on the sensor wiring connection to confirm continuity. Checking the 5v reading will guide you if the ecm is working or not.
Final Fix
Checking at the ecm terminals, the 5v presence was confirmed which is also available at the tps sensor connection. When checked at the mass sensor end, it showed zero volt. Replacing the mass sensor fixed the problem.

Hyundai OBD1 Codes

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Hyundai vehicles 1989-95 obd1 code retrieval

To get your check engine light codes for Hyundai vehicles 1989-95 is simple. All it needs is your analog voltmeter (a voltmeter that has a needle indicator) hooked up to your diagnostic connector. The diagnostic connector is usually located under your dash panel on the left side of the steering column.
Hyundai OBD1 DecoderTo hook up the voltmeter, connect the positive lead on the “mpi” diagnostic pin on the top right corner of the connector and the negative lead is connected to the ground pin of the diagnostic connector located in the lower left corner.
You can then turn the key on and watch the codes being sweep by the needle of your voltmeter. Example: A code 13 is shown as 1 sweep of long duration followed by 3 sweeps of short duration. Also if there are more codes, it will be shown in numerical order.

Here are some popular obd1 codes for Hyundai 1989-1995 vehicles:
Code 11 Oxygen sensor
Code 12 Air flow sensor
Code 13 Air temperature sensor
Code 14 Throttle positioner sensor
Code 15 Motor position sensor
Code 21 Engine coolant sensor
Code 22 Crank angle sensor
Code 23 No.1 cylinder top dead center sensor
Code 24 Vehicle speed sensor
Code 25 Barometric pressure sensor
Code 41 Injector
Code 42 Fuel pump
Code 43 EGR
Code 44 Ignition coil fault
Code 59 Oxygen sensor fault

Acura OBD1 Codes

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Acura vehicles 1986-95 obd1 code retrieval

There are a few different ways to retrieve the codes for “check engine light” for Acura vehicles. One method is to use a led light (sometimes 2 led lights) on the computer or controller box itself. If it has 2 led lights, the color is red and amber. The red is used for flashing the codes whereas the amber is used for adjustment. If you have only a single led light indicator, then that is used for flashing the code.
The controller box can be found by lifting the carpet of the passenger side front foot well or floorboard. You can see the led lights without removing the controller. On other models, you can find the controller under the driver or passenger front seat.
Shown below is the actual OBD1 location:

The second way to get the code is using a jumper wire on the diagnostic connector located on the kick panel at the front passenger side. You then watch the codes being flashed at the dash panel after you turn the key on. To read the code being flashed is easy. Example: Code 23 is 2 long flashes followed by 3 short flashes. A longer pause separates the next code that follows.
Any Acura Vehicles made before 1995 as shown below can use OBD1 testing system

Here are Acura vehicles 1986-95 general codes:
Code 0 Electronic control unit (ecu)
Code 1 02 (oxygen) sensor
Code 3 and 5 map sensor
Code 4 Crank angle sensor
Code 6 Coolant temperature sensor
Code 7 Throttle angle sensor
Code 8 Crank angle sensor (TDC)
Code 9 Crank angle sensor (CLY)
Code 10 Intake air temperature sensor
Code 12 EGR system fault
Code 13 Atmospheric pressure sensor
Code 14 Electronic air control valve
Code 15 Ignition output signal
Code 16 Fuel injector fault
Code 17 Vehicle speed sensor
Code 21 Spool solenoid valve
Code 22 Valve timing oil pressure switch fault
Code 23 Knock sensor
Code 41 Oxygen sensor heater fault
Code 43 Fuel supply system

Toyota obd1 code

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Toyota 1990-1995 vehicles obd1 code retrieval

When the check engine light shows up in your 1990-95 Toyota vehicle, the quickest way to get the code is to access the diagnostic connector in the engine compartment ( usually sitting in the fender) or by the kick panel under the dash board in the passenger side.
Connect a jumper wire between terminals TE1 and E1 terminals and by turning the key on, it will start flashing the codes in your dash. On Tercel and MR2, use the jumper wire between terminals T and E1 instead.
If there are no codes, the check engine light will flash 2 times per second CONSTANTLY with no patterns or pauses. If there are any codes, it will be shown in 2 digits codes. Example: code 24 is shown as 2 flashes, a pause followed by 4 flashes. If there are mode codes, the next one will transmitted after 2.5 seconds. (One some models, codes are displayed in one digit code only and the difference is the codes are displayed with 4.5 seconds delay between codes). When finished reading the codes, turn the key off and remove the jumper wire.

Shown above is an example of the location of the diagnostic connector.
Here are the common codes for Toyota vehicles 1988-95:
Code 11 Momentary interruption in power supply to ECU (electronic control unit or computer) up to 1991
Code 12 Engine revolution signal missing
Code 13 Rpm signal to ecu missing above 1000 rpm
Code 14 Igniter signal to ecu missing
Code 16 A/T control signal missing from ecu
Code 21 Main oxygen sensor signal fault
Code 22 Water temperature sensor circuit fault
Code 23 and 24 Intake air temperature signal fault
Code 25 Air/fuel ratio LEAN
Code 26 Air/fuel ratio RICH
Code 27 Sub-oxygen sensor signal or heater circuit fault
Code 28 No.2 oxygen sensor/heater signal fault
Code 31 and 32 Air flow meter circuit or Vacuum sensor signal fault
Code 34 and 36 Turbo-charging pressure signal fault
Code 35 Altitude compensation sensor signal fault
Code 41 Throttle position circuit fault
Code 42 Vehicle speed sensor circuit
Code 43 No starter signal to the ecu
Code 51 AC signal on; DL contact off (in trany shifter with diagnostic connector jumped)
Code 52, 53 and 55 Knock sensor fault
Code 71 EGR system malfunction
Code 72 Fuel cut solenoid signal fault
Code 78 Fuel pump control signal fault
Code 81, 83, 84 and 85 TCM communication fault

Nissan obd1 code

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Nissan vehicles 1984-94 obd1 code retrieval

Nissan check engine light codes can be retrieved by accessing the engine computer usually located under the passenger seat, behind the glove box, center console or depending on the model. The computer itself stores the code and has a led light indicator in the box located in the top or side of the housing. The led light indicator could be single or double.
Nissan OBD1 DecoderWhen activated, you have to either flick a switch or turn a screw in the computer box to start the led lights to flash after turning the key on but with engine not running.

Using a screw driver, turn the ignition key on and turn the screw driver fully clockwise and wait 2 seconds. Then turn the screw driver fully counter clockwise and the led light should start to flash in the computer box itself. When you have a single led light, you can read the code using this method:
Code 12 is showed by 1 long flashes followed by 2 short flashes
When you have a computer box with 2 led lights (usually a red and green light), the code can be read using this method: green led light will flash the first digit and the red led light will flash the second digit. Example: 3 flash of green and 4 flashes of red means a code 34.
Note: There are 5 different modes when accessing these codes and depending on the vehicle and model, please check with your dealer or ATS on what mode to use.
Here are some Nissan 1984-1995 popular common fault codes:
Code 11 Crank sensor angle
Code 12 Mass airflow sensor
Code 13 Engine coolant temperature sensor
Code 14 Vehicle speed sensor
Code 21 No ignition reference
Code 22 Fuel pump
Code 31 Engine control unit
Code 32 EGR sensor
Code 33 Oxygen sensor
Code 34 Knock sensor
Code 35 EGR temperature sensor
Code 43 Throttle positioner sensor
Code 45 Injector leak
Code 51 Injector circuit
Code 54 Automatic transmission signal
Code 55 No malfunction recorded

Chrysler OBD1 Codes

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How to get the code/s for Chrysler 1983-1995 vehicles:

Within a period of 5 seconds, cycle the ignition key
1. Count the number of time the MIL (check engine lamp)
on the instrument panel flashes on and off. The number
of flashes represents the trouble code. There is a short
pause between the flashes representing the 1st and 2nd
digits of the code. Longer pauses are used to separate
individual 2-digit trouble code.
An example of a flashed DTC is as follows:
Chrysler OBD1 Decoder-Lamp flashes 4 times, pauses, then flashes 6 more times.
This denotes a DTC number 46.
-Lamp flashes 5 times, pauses, then flashes 5 more times.
This indicates a DTC number 55.
DTC 55 will always be the last code to be displayed.
Here's how your ignition key looks like. Make sure to cycle
it between on and off positions only.

 Clearing codes can be performed by turning the ignition off
and removing the negative battery cable for at least 1 minute.
Removing the negative battery cable may cause other systems
in the vehicle to loose their memory. Prior to removing the
cable, ensure you have the proper reset codes for radios
and alarms.
If you find some difficulties on doing this, you can take your car to
Auto Zone parts store and they can scan the code FREE for you. They
do this to encourage you to buy parts from them. However, don't buy
anything just yet till you confirmed the code with ATS. When you become
a member, we will show you the tests on the codes so you don't have to
buy unnecessary parts. Complete instructions will come with drawings and
wiring diagrams.
Chrysler products COMMON CODES OBD1 (vehicles made before 1996)
Part 1: Chrysler Domestic vehicles
88 display used for start or test
11 camshaft signal or ignition signal, no reference signal during cranking
12 memory to controller has been cleared within 50-100 engine starts
13 map sensor not detecting any change during test
14 map voltage too high or too low
15 vehicle speed sensor, no signal detected
16 knock sensor circuit. open or short detected
17 low engine temperature, possible thermostat fault
21 oxygen sensor signal, neither rich or lean detected
22 coolant sensor voltage low
23 air charge voltage high/low detected
24 throttle positioner sensor voltage high/low
25 automatic idle speed motor driver circuit, short or open detected
26 injectors 1,2,3 peak current not reached
27 injector control circuit does not respond to control signal
31 purge solenoid circuit, open or short detected
32 egr solenoid circuit, open or short detected
33 a/c clutch relay circuit, open or short detected
34 speed control servo solenoid, open or short detected
35 radiator fan control relay circuit, open or short detected
36 wastegate solenoid, open or short detected
37 part throttle unlock(PTU) circuit, open or short detected
41 charging system circuit not responding to control signal
42 fuel pump or auto shutdown (ASD) relay voltage sensed at controller
43 ignition control circuit not responding
44 battery temperature voltage circuit problem
45 turbo boost limit exceeded-map sensor detects overboost
46 battery voltage too high
47 battery voltage too low
51 air/fuel at limit
52 logic module fault
53 internal controller failure
54 camshaft reference circuit not detected
55 end of message
61 baro read solenoid, open or short detected
62 emr mileage not stored
63 eeprom write denied
64 flex fuel sensor signal out of range
65 manifold tuning valve, open or short detected
66 no ccd messages
76 ballast bypass relay, open or short detected
77 speed control relay, open or short detected
Part 2: Chrysler Import vehicles
1 oxygen sensor
2 crank engine sensor
3 air flow sensor
4 barometric pressure sensor
5 throttle positioner sensor
6 motor position sensor
7 engine coolant temperature sensor
8 no.1 cylinder tdc sensor
12 air flow sensor
13 air temperature sensor
14 throttle positioner sensor
15 sc motor position sensor
21 engine coolant temperature sensor
22 crank angle sensor
23 no.1 cylinder tdc sensor
24 vehicle speed sensor
25 barometric pressure sensor
31 knock sensor
32 manifold pressure sensor
36 ignition timing adjustment signal
39 oxygen sensor
41 injetor
42 fuel pump
43 egr
44 ignition coil
52 ignition coil
53 ignition coil
55 iac valve position sensor
59 heated oxygen sensor
61 transaxle control unit cable
62 warm up control valve position sensor

Ford OBD1 Codes

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Ford 1985-95 OBD1 code self-retrieval

When checking engine service light on Ford vehicles made before 1995, you can get the code yourself using a $5 tool called "test light". All you need is to hook it up to the vehicle’s diagnostic connector and turn your key on and watch the codes being flashed in your dash panel.
Shown above on your left how the FORD OBD1 diagnostic connector is set up.
You should find the diagnostic connector under your hood normally by the fender next to the battery on the passenger side of engine compartment. By just using your test light and a jumper wire, it will tell you what kind of Ford OBD1 code problem you got.
Ford OBD1 Decoder
1. Make sure engine is fully warmed. If in doubt, run engine at 2000 rpm for 2 minutes.2. Turn ignition off and wait 10 seconds for system to shut off. Make sure A/C is off and transmission is in Park (automatic) or Neutral (manual).3. Hook up light and jumper (or a tester if you have one). Turn key to ON (do not start engine). Read the codes.
How to do it?

Example code 23: your test light should flash 2 long consecutive flashes followed by 3 short pulses.
Ford's common OBD1 fault codes (for vehicles made before 1995)
11 system pass
12 idle control fault
13 dc motor did not move
14 engine rpm signal fault or PIP circuit failure
15 eec processor or power to KAM interrupted
16 rpm to low to check oxygen sensor test or fuel control error
17 cfi fuel control system fault or rich/lean condition indicated
18 ignition diagnostic monitor (IDM) circuit failure
19 cylinder identification (CID) sensor input failure
21 engine coolant temperature (ECT) out of self-test range
22 manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor circuit out of range
23 throttle positioner sensor out of self-test range
24 air charge temperature (ACT) sensor out of self-test range
25 knock not sensed during dynamic response test
26 transmission fluid temperature out of self-test range
28 loss of primary tach, right side
29 insufficient input from vehicle speed sensor
31 egr positioner sensor below minimum voltage
32 egr positioner sensor below closed limit
33 throttle positioner sensor noisy/harsh on line
34 egr valve circuit out of self-test range
35 egr valve circuit above maximum voltage
38 idle track switch circuit open
39 axod torque converter or bypass clutch not applying properly
41 oxygen sensor circuit indicates system always lean
42 oxygen sensor circuit indicates system always rich
43 oxygen sensor out of self-test range
44 air injection control system failure
45 coil 1 primary circuit failure
46 coil primary circuit failure
47 4X4 switch is closed or oxygen sensor failure
48 coil primary circuit failure
49 electronic transmission shift error
51 engine coolant temperature sensor circuit open
52 power steering pressure switch circuit open
53 throttle position circuit above maximum voltage
54 air charge temperature circuit open
55 key power input to processor open circuit
56 mass air flow circuit above maximum voltage
57 axod circuit failure
58 idle tracking switch circuit fault
59 automatic transmission shift error
61 engine coolant temperature circuit grounded
62 converter clutch error
63 throttle positioner circuit below minimum voltage
64 air charge temperature circuit grounded
65 charging system over voltage
66 mass air flow sensor circuit below minimum voltage
67 neutral/drive switch circuit open
68 transmission fluid temperature over temperature range69 transmission shift error
70 data circuit communication link circuit failure
71 message center circuit circuit failure
72 insufficient manifold absolute pressure (MAP) change during dynamic response test
73 insufficient throttle positioner (TPS) change during dynamic response test
74 brake on/off (BOO) circuit open
75 brake on/off (BOO) circuit closed
76 insufficient air flow output change during test
77 brief wide open throttle not sensed during test
78 power interrupt detected
79 a/c on/defrost on during self test
81 map has not changed normally
82 super charger bypass circuit failure
83 OIC-low speed fuel pump relay circuit failure
84 egr vacuum regulator (EVR) circuit failure
85 canister purge circuit failure
86 shift solenoid circuit failure
87 fuel pump circuit failure
88 electro drive fan circuit failure
89 transmission solenoid circuit failure
91 no oxygen sensor switching detected
92 shift solenoid circuit failure
93 throttle positioner sensor input low
94 torque converter clutch solenoid circuit failure
95 fuel pump secondary circuit failure
96 fuel pump secondary circuit failure
97 transmission indicator circuit failure
98 electronic pressure control circuit failure
99 eec has not learned to control idle

GM OBD1 Codes

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GM OBD1 Codes Retrieval For Pre 1996 GM Vehicles

As the name implies, you can get the codes for GM cars or trucks yourself if the model of your vehicle is made before 1995, this means as soon as you see “check engine light” in your dash, you can get the code in minutes if you want.
Shown on the left is a picture of the connector pin terminals where you can get the GM OBD1 code.
GM OBD1 DecoderWhen you find this adapter connectors (usually on the bottom left side of your dash panel) use a jumper wire or paper clip and connect terminals A and B. Next turn your key on but don't start. Watch your check engine flash the code/s.
EXAMPLE: CODE 12: one long flash and two short flashes CODE 13: one long flash and 3 short flashes.
Note: code 12 is usually the first code you get and just ignore it. Watch the code after code 12, that's what you need to fix.

GM common codes for OBD1 (for vehicles made before 1995)

12 System normal
13 oxygen sensor circuit open
14 coolant sensor high resistance or shorted
15 coolant sensor circuit low or open
16 direct ignition system (DIS) fault in circuit
17 cam position sensor fault
18 crank or cam sensor error
19 crank sensor circuit fault
21 tps sensor out of range
22 tps sensor signal voltage low
23 intake air temp sensor out of range, low
24 vehicle speed (vss) sensor circuit fault
25 air temp sensor sensor out of range, high
26 quad-driver module (computer) circuit #1 fault
27 quad-driver module (computer) 2nd gear circuit
28 quad-driver module (computer) circuit #2 fault
29 quad driver module (computer) 4th gear circuit
31 cam position sensor fault
32 egr circuit fault
33 map sensor signal out of range, high
34 map sensor signal out of range, low
35 idle air control sensor circuit fault
36 ignition system circuit error
38 brake input circuit fault
39 clutch input circuit fault
41 cam sensor circuit fault, igntion control circuit fault
42 electronic spark timing (EST) circuit grounded
43 knock sensor
or electronic spark control circuit fault
44 oxygen sensor lean exhaust
45 oxygen sensor rich exhaust
46 pass-key II circuit or ps.pressure switch circuit fault
47 pcm-bcm data circuit
48 misfire diagnosis
51 calibration error, mem-cal, ecm or eeprom failure
52 engine oil temperature circuit, low temperature indicated
53 battery voltage error or egr or pass-key II circuit
54 egr system failure or fuel pump circuit low voltage
55 a/d converter error or pcm not grounded or lean fuel or frounded reference voltage
56 quad-driver module #2 circuit
57 boost control problem
58 vehicle anti-theft system fuel enable circuit
61 a/c system performance or degraded oxygen sensor signal
62 engine oil temperature high temperature indicated
63 oxygen sensor right side circuit open or map sensor out of range
64 oxygen sensor right side lean exhaust indicated
65 oxygen sensor right side rich exhaust indicated
66 a/c pressure sensor circuit low pressure
67 a/c pressure sensor circuit or a/c clutch circuit failure
68 a/c compressor relay circuit failure
69 a/c clutch circuit head pressure high
70 a/c refrigerant pressure circuit high
71 a/c evaporator temperature sensor circuit low
72 gear selector switch circuit
73 a/c evaporator temperature circuit high
75 digital egr #1 solenoid error
76 digital egr #2 solenoid error
77 digital egr #3 solenoid error
79 vehicle speed sensor (vss) circuit signal high
80 vehicle speed sensor (vss) circuit signal low
81 brake input circuit fault
82 ignition control (IC) 3X signal error
85 prom error
86 analog/digital ecm error
87 eeprom error
99 power management

OBD1 check engine codes

18XX-1995 code list (OBD1)
·                     ACURA OBD1 codes 
·                     BMW OBD1 codes
·                     Chysler OBD1 codes
·                     Ford OBD1 codes
·                     GM OBD1 codes
·                     HONDA OBD1 codes
·                     Hyundai OBD1 codes
·                     ISUZU OBD1 codes
·                     Jaguar OBD1 codes
·                     LEXUS OBD1 codes 
·                     Mitsubishi OBD1 codes
·                     Nissan OBD1 codes
·                     Subaru OBD1 codes
·                     Suzuki OBD1 codes
·                     Toyota OBD1 codes

·                     Volkswagen OBD1 codes